The Uyghur people have lived in the northwest corner of China, a region known as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region for generations. They have lived alongside members of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz communities, all of whom are ethnically Turkic and many of whom, like the Uyghurs, are Muslim.

Over the years, the Chinese government has tried to take over this land, handing economic power to those of the Han community, and eliminating any power the minority Muslim communities enjoyed. The Chinese government’s campaign of discrimination against these communities has a long history and began to escalate in 2012. Following the 9/11attacks in the U.S., China claimed that it too was a target for global terrorism. Between 2012-2017, China doubled its spending for domestic security nationwide, and tripled it in Xinjiang. Thus began a new and more concentrated campaign to crush Uyghur identity.


What  •  Eradicated Uyghur Identity

What  •  2012 – Present

Location  •  Xinjiang Region of China

Estimated Dead  •  Unknown

Displaced Persons  •  More than one million as of 2021


Following an attack by a group of Uyghurs at a railway station in 2014 where 14 people were killed, the Chinese government launched a “Strike Hard Against Violent Terrorism” campaign. This was directed squarely at the Xinjiang’s Uyghur community and other Turkic Muslim populations. They became the focus of a mass government surveillance program, with state-of-the-art video and audio technology recording their every move and targeting anyone sharing messages, texts and other information that didn’t promote “ethnic unity.” Once on the government’s radar for these offenses, citizens were rounded up, arrested, harassed, or disappeared. 

By 2016, China’s President Xi Jinping stepped up his clamp down and put Quanguo Chen in charge of “party security” in Xinjiang. Chen had already been Xi’s choice to control dissent in Tibet and elsewhere and was known for his ruthless tactics. Eleven million Uyghurs make up nearly 50% of the population of Xinjiang. According to Human Rights Watch, arrests in Xinjiang in 2017 accounted for 21.5% of all arrests in China, while the population of the region makes up only 1.5% of China’s population. The Chinese government has continued its program of arbitrary arrests, cultural and religious erasure, family separation, controlled movement, torture, forced disappearances, forced sterilization, forced labor and imprisonment.

By 2021, more than 90 new prison compounds were filled with an estimated one million-plus people—mostly Uyghurs as well as other predominately Muslim minorities from Xinjiang. Xi’s government calls these (re-)education and job training centers, but former prisoners, NGOs and other trained observers say these are basically concentration camps, where those being held are brainwashed, beaten, tortured, forcibly sterilized, some even killed as part of the government’s plan to systematically “cleanse” a population. 

The Chinese government maintains it is merely fighting terrorism and extremism in the region, but the evidence is clear and growing that this is not the case. The international community has been slow to act, with no official investigations launched through the United Nations or International Criminal Court, but citizens and business owners around the world are starting to put financial pressure on the country.

Timeline of critical events in China/XUAR

2014 – “Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism” launched against Uyghur community
and other Turkic Muslims.

2017 – Reports begin to flood out of China about mass arrest and detention of members of the
Uyghur community.

2018 – Detainees began to be used as workers in factories throughout Xinjiang as either unpaid
or low wage workers.

2019 – International community calls for access for the UN High Commissioner of Human
Rights to investigate abuses against the Uyghur community.

2020 – 50 UN Special Procedures call for action on China, specifically a special session of the
Human Rights Council.

2020 – International Community began cutting ties with or sanctioning Chinese companies using
Uyghur labor.

2021 – U.S., U.K. and other western nations officially call the actions by China against the
Uyghur community a genocide.

2021 – China replaces hardline Xinjiang party boss associated with Uyghur crackdown, however,
systematic repression, including torture, arrests, forced sterilization and confinement in
concentration camps continues.

2021 – Various economic sanctions levied against China including Uyghur Forced Labor Act
signed into law by President Biden. It prohibits goods mined, produced or manufactured in
Xinjiang from being imported into the US.

2022 – U.S. and other countries exercise a “diplomatic boycott” of Beijing Winter Olympics to
protest China’s extreme human rights violations aimed at Uyghurs.

2022– Concerns raised about effectiveness of economic sanctions as several large U.S.
companies, including Tesla, Intel and Coca Cola, resume or expand business in Xinjiang and
elsewhere in China.